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SRI AUROBINDO

Bhagavad gita

Paraphrase

अथ प्रथमोऽध्यायः (अर्जुनविषादयोगः)

atha prathamo'dhyāyaḥ (arjunaviṣādayogaḥ)

1. The Yoga of the Dejection of Arjuna

The translation of the Gita presented here was compiled mainly from Sri Aurobindo's Essays on the Gita. It first appeared in The Message of the Gita, edited by Anilbaran Roy, in 1938. Sri Aurobindo approved this book for publication; however, he made it clear in one of his letters that the translations in the Essays were "more explanatory than textually precise or cast in a literary style". Many of them are paraphrases rather than strict translations. Sri Aurobindo also wrote that he did not wish extracts from the Essays "to go out as my translation of the Gita". This should be borne in mind by the reader as he mattes use of this translation, which has been provided as a bridge between the Gita and Sri Aurobindo's Essays.

 

1.01 धृतराष्ट्र उवाच

धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः ।

मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत सञ्जय ॥

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca

dharmakṣetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ,

māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāścaiva kimakurvata sañjaya.

Dhritarashtra said: — On the field of Kurukshetra, the field of the working out of the Dharma, gathered together, eager for battle, what did they, O Sanjaya, my people and the Pandavas?

 

1.02 सञ्जय उवाच

दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्यूढं दुर्योधनस्तदा ।

आचार्यमुपसंगम्य राजा वचनमब्रवीत् ॥

sañjaya uvāca

dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkaṃ vyūḍhaṃ duryodhanastadā,

ācāryamupasaṃgamya rājā vacanamabravīt.

Sanjaya said: — Then the prince Duryodhana, having seen the army of the Pandayas arrayed in battle order, approached his teacher and spoke these words:—

 

1.03 पश्यैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणामाचार्य महतीं चमूम् ।

व्यूढां द्रुपदपुत्रेण तव शिष्येण धीमता ॥

paśyaitāṃ pāṇḍuputrāṇāmācārya mahatīṃ camūm,

vyūḍhāṃ drupadaputreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā.

"Behold this mighty host of the sons of Pandu, O Acharya, arrayed by Drupada's son, thy intelligent disciple.

 

1.04 अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्जुनसमा युधि ।

युयुधानो विराटश्च द्रुपदश्च महारथः ॥

atra śūrā maheṣvāsā bhīmārjunasamā yudhi,

yuyudhāno virāṭaśca drupadaśca mahārathaḥ.

1.05 धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः काशिराजश्च वीर्यवान् ।

पुरुजित्कुन्तिभोजश्च शैब्यश्च नरपुंगवः ॥

dhṛṣṭaketuścekitānaḥ kāśirājaśca vīryavān,

purujitkuntibhojaśca śaibyaśca narapuṃgavaḥ.

1.06 युधामन्युश्च विक्रान्त उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान् ।

सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्व एव महारथाः ॥

yudhāmanyuśca vikrānta uttamaujāśca vīryavān,

saubhadro draupadeyāśca sarva eva mahārathāḥ.

Here in this mighty army are heroes and great bowmen who are equal in battle to Bhima and Arjuna: Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada of the great car, Dhrishlaketu, Chekitana and the valiant prince of Kashi, Purujit and Kuntibhoja, and Shaibya, foremost among men; Yudhamanyu, the strong, and Uttamauja, the victorious; Subhadra's son (Abhimanyu) and the sons of Draupadi; all of them of great prowess.

 

1.07 अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा ये तान्निबोध द्विजोत्तम ।

नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान्ब्रवीमि ते ॥

asmākaṃ tu viśiṣṭā ye tānnibodha dvijottama,

nāyakā mama sainyasya saṃjñārthaṃ tānbravīmi te.

On our side also know those who are the most distinguished. O best of the twice-born, the leaders of my army; these I name to thee for thy special notice.

 

1.08 भवान्भीष्मश्च कर्णश्च कृपश्च समितिंजयः ।

अश्वत्थामा विकर्णश्च सौमदत्तिर् जयद्रथः ॥

bhavānbhīṣmaśca karṇaśca kṛpaśca samitiṃjayaḥ,

aśvatthāmā vikarṇaśca saumadattir jayadrathaḥ.

1.09 अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः ।

नानाशस्त्रप्रहरणाः सर्वे युद्धविशारदाः ॥

anye ca bahavaḥ śūrā madarthe tyaktajīvitāḥ,

nānāśastrapraharaṇāḥ sarve yuddhaviśāradāḥ.

Thyself and Bhishma and Kama and Kripa, the victorious in battle, Ashvatthama, Vikarna, and Saumadatti also; and many other heroes have renounced their life for my sake, they are all armed with diverse weapons and missiles and all well-skilled in war.

 

1.10 अपर्याप्तं तदस्माकं बलं भीष्माभिरक्षितम् ।

पर्याप्तं त्विदमेतेषां बलं भीमाभिरक्षितम् ॥

aparyāptaṃ tadasmākaṃ balaṃ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam,

paryāptaṃ tvidameteṣāṃ balaṃ bhīmābhirakṣitam.

Unlimited is this army of ours and it is marshalled by Bhishma, while the army of theirs is limited, and they depend on Bhima.

 

1.11 अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमवस्थिताः ।

भीष्ममेवाभिरक्षन्तु भवन्तः सर्व एव हि ॥

ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathābhāgamavasthitāḥ,

bhīṣmamevābhirakṣantu bhavantaḥ sarva eva hi.

Therefore all ye standing in your respective divisions in the different fronts of the battle, guard Bhishma."

 

1.12 तस्य संजनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः ।

सिंहनादं विनद्योच्चैः शंखं दध्मौ प्रतापवान् ॥

tasya saṃjanayanharṣaṃ kuruvṛddhaḥ pitāmahaḥ,

siṃhanādaṃ vinadyoccaiḥ śaṅkhaṃ dadhmau pratāpavān.

Cheering the heart of Duryodhana. the mighty grandsire (Bhishma). the Ancient of the Kurus, resounding the battlefield with a lion's roar, blew his conch.

 

1.13 ततः शंखाश्च भेर्यश्च पणवानकगोमुखाः ।

सहसैवाभ्यहन्यन्त स शब्दस्तुमुलोऽभवत् ॥

tataḥ śaṅkhāśca bheryaśca paṇavānakagomukhāḥ,

sahasaivābhyahanyanta sa śabdastumulo'bhavat.

Then conchs and kettledrums, tabors and drums and horns, suddenly blared forth, and the clamour became tremendous.

 

1.14 ततः श्वेतैर्हयैर्युक्ते महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ ।

माधवः पाण्डवश् चैव दिव्यौ शंखौ प्रदघ्मतुः ॥

tataḥ śvetairhayairyukte mahati syandane sthitau,

mādhavaḥ pāṇḍavaś caiva divyau śaṅkhau pradaghmatuḥ.

 

1.15 पाञ्चजन्यं हृषीकेशो देवदत्तं धनंजयः ।

पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशंखं भीमकर्मा वृकोदरः ॥

pāñcajanyaṃ hṛṣīkeśo devadattaṃ dhanaṃjayaḥ,

pauṇḍraṃ dadhmau mahāśaṅkhaṃ bhīmakarmā vṛkodaraḥ.

Then, seated in their great chariot, yoked to white horses. Madhava (Sri Krishna) and the son of Pandu (Arjuna) blew their divine conchs.

1.16 अनन्तविजयं राजा कुन्तीपुत्रो युधिष्ठिरः ।

नकुलः सहदेवश्च सुघोषमणिपुष्पकौ ॥

anantavijayaṃ rājā kuntīputro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ,

nakulaḥ sahadevaśca sughoṣamaṇipuṣpakau.

Hrishikesha (Krishna) blew his Panchajanya and Dhananjaya (Arjuna) his Devadatta (god-given); Vrikodara of terrific deeds blew his mighty conch, Paundra; the King Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, blew Anantavijaya, Nakula and Sahadeva, Sughosha and Manipushpaka.

 

1.17 काश्यश्च परमेष्वासः शिखण्डी च महारथः ।

धृष्टद्युम्नो विराटश्च सात्यकिश्चापराजितः ॥

kāśyaśca parameṣvāsaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca mahārathaḥ,

dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaśca sātyakiścāparājitaḥ.

1.18 द्रुपदो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्वशः पृथिवीपते ।

सौभद्रश्च महाबाहुः शंखान्दध्मुः पृथक्पृथक् ॥

drupado draupadeyāśca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivīpate,

saubhadraśca mahābāhuḥ śaṅkhāndadhmuḥ pṛthakpṛthak.

And Kashya of the great bow, and Shikhandi of the great chariot, Dhrishtadyumna and Virata and Satyaki, the unconquered, Drupada, and the sons of Draupadi, O Lord of earth, and Saubhadra, the mighty-armed, on all sides their several conchs blew.

 

1.19 स घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् ।

नभश्च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलो व्यनुनादयन् ॥

sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ hṛdayāni vyadārayat,

nabhaśca pṛthivīṃ caiva tumulo vyanunādayan.

That tumultuous uproar resounding through earth and sky tore the hearts of the sons of Dhritarashtra.

 

1.20 अथ व्यवस्थितान्दृष्ट्वा धार्तराष्ट्रान् कपिध्वजः ।

प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसंपाते धनुरुद्यम्य पाण्डवः ।

हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते ॥

atha vyavasthitāndṛṣṭvā dhārtarāṣṭrān kapidhvajaḥ,

pravṛtte śastrasaṃpāte dhanurudyamya pāṇḍavaḥ,

hṛṣīkeśaṃ tadā vākyamidamāha mahīpate.

Then, beholding the sons of Dhritarashtra standing in battle order,—and the flight of missiles having begun, the son of Pandu (Arjuna), whose emblem is an ape, took up his bow and spoke this word to Hrishikesha, O Lord of earth:

 

1.21 अर्जुन उवाच:

सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत ॥

arjuna uvāca:

senayorubhayormadhye rathaṃ sthāpaya me'cyuta.

1.22 यावदेतान्निरीक्षेऽहं योद्धुकामानवस्थितान् ।

कैर्मया सह योद्धव्यमस्मिन्रणसमुद्यमे ॥

yāvadetānnirīkṣe'haṃ yoddhukāmānavasthitān,

kairmayā saha yoddhavyamasminraṇasamudyame.

1.23 योत्स्यमानानवेक्षेऽहं य एतेऽत्र समागताः ।

धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः ॥

yotsyamānānavekṣe'haṃ ya ete'tra samāgatāḥ,

dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddheryuddhe priyacikīrṣavaḥ.

Arjuna said: O Achyuta (the faultless, the immovable), stay my chariot between the two armies, so that I may view these myriads standing, longing for battle, whom I have to meet in this holiday of fight, and look upon those who have come here to champion the cause of the evil-minded son of Dhritarashtra.

 

1.24 सञ्जय उवाच:

एवमुक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत ।

सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम् ॥

sañjaya uvāca:

evamukto hṛṣīkeśo guḍākeśena bhārata,

senayorubhayormadhye sthāpayitvā rathottamam.

1.25 भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम् ।

उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान्समवेतान्कुरूनिति ॥

bhīṣmadroṇapramukhataḥ sarveṣāṃ ca mahīkṣitām,

uvāca pārtha paśyaitānsamavetānkurūniti.

Sanjaya said: Thus addressed by Gudakesha (one that has overcome sleep. Arjuna), Hrishikesha, O Bharata, having stayed that best of chariots between the two armies, in front of Bhishma, Drona and all the princes of earth, said: "O Partha, behold these Kurus gathered together."

 

1.26 तत्रापश्यत्स्थितान्पार्थः पितॄनथ पितामहान् ।

आचार्यान्मातुलान्भ्रातॄन्पुत्रान्पौत्रान्सखींस्तथा ।

श्वशुरान्सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि ॥

tatrāpaśyatsthitānpārthaḥ pitÔnatha pitāmahān,

ācāryānmātulānbhrātÔnputrānpautrānsakhīṃstathā,

śvaśurānsuhṛdaścaiva senayorubhayorapi.

Then saw Partha standing upon opposite sides, uncles and grandsires, teachers, mother's brothers, cousins, sons and grandsons, comrades, fathers-in-law, benefactors.

 

1.27 तान्समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान् ।

कृपया परयाविष्टो विषीदन्निदमब्रवीत् ।

tānsamīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ sarvānbandhūnavasthitān,

kṛpayā parayāviṣṭo viṣīdannidamabravīt,

Seeing all these kinsmen thus standing arrayed, Kaunteya, invaded by great pity, uttered this in sadness and dejection:

 

1.28 अर्जुन उवाच:

दृष्ट्वेमं स्वजनं कृष्ण युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम् ।

सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि मुखं च परिशुष्यति ॥

arjuna uvāca:

dṛṣṭvemaṃ svajanaṃ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṃ samupasthitam,

sīdanti mama gātrāṇi mukhaṃ ca pariśuṣyati.

1.29 वेपथुश्च शरीरे मे रोमहर्षश्च जायते ।

गाण्डीवं स्रंसते हस्तात्त्वक्चैव परिदह्यते ॥

vepathuśca śarīre me romaharṣaśca jāyate,

gāṇḍīvaṃ sraṃsate hastāttvakcaiva paridahyate.

Arjuna said: Seeing these my own people, O Krishna, arrayed for battle, my limbs collapse and my mouth is parched, my body shakes and my hair stands on end; Gandiva (Arjuna's bow) slips from my hand, and all my skin seems to be burning.

 

1.30 न च शक्नोम्यवस्थातुं भ्रमतीव च मे मनः ।

निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि केशव ॥

na ca śaknomyavasthātuṃ bhramatīva ca me manaḥ,

nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava.

I am not able to stand and my mind seems to be whirling; also I see evil omens, O Keshava.

 

1.31 न च श्रेयोऽनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्वजनमाहवे ।

न काङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च ॥

na ca śreyo'nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanamāhave,

na kāňkṣe vijayaṃ kṛṣṇa na ca rājyaṃ sukhāni ca.

Nor do I see any good in slaying my own people in battle; O Krishna, I desire not victory, nor kingdom, nor pleasures.

 

1.32 किं नो राज्येन गोविन्द किं भोगैर्जीवितेन वा ।

येषामर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च ॥

kiṃ no rājyena govinda kiṃ bhogairjīvitena vā,

yeṣāmarthe kāňkṣitaṃ no rājyaṃ bhogāḥ sukhāni ca.

1.33 त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च ।

आचार्याः पितरः पुत्रास्तथैव च पितामहाः ॥

ta ime'vasthitā yuddhe prāṇāṃstyaktvā dhanāni ca,

ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrāstathaiva ca pitāmahāḥ.

1.34 मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः सम्बन्धिनस्तथा ।

एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन ॥

mātulāḥ śvaśurāḥ pautrāḥ śyālāḥ sambandhinastathā,

etānna hantumicchāmi ghnato'pi madhusūdana.

1.35 अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते ।

निहत्य धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः का प्रीतिः स्याजनार्दन ॥

api trailokyarājyasya hetoḥ kiṃ nu mahīkṛte,

nihatya dhārtarāṣṭrānnaḥ kā prītiḥ syājanārdana.

What is kingdom to us, O Govinda, what enjoyment, what even life? Those for whose sake we desire kingdom, enjoyments and pleasures, they stand here in battle, abandoning life and riches — teachers, fathers, sons, as well as grandsires, mother's brothers, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and other kith and kin; these I would not consent to slay, though myself slain, O Madhusudana, even for the kingdom of the three worlds; how then for earth? What pleasures can be ours after killing the sons of Dhritarashtra. O Janardana?

 

1.36 पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतानाततायिनः ।

तस्मान्नार्हा वयं हन्तुं धार्तराष्ट्रान्स्वबान्धवान् ।

स्वजनं हि कथं हत्वा सुखिनः स्याम माधव ॥

pāpamevāśrayedasmānhatvaitānātatāyinaḥ,

tasmānnārhā vayaṃ hantuṃ dhārtarāṣṭrānsvabāndhavān,

svajanaṃ hi kathaṃ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava.

Sin will take hold of us in slaying them. though they are the aggressors. So it is not fit that we kill the sons of Dhritarashtra, our kinsmen; indeed how may we be happy, O Madhava, killing our own people?

 

1.37 यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहतचेतसः ।

कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं मित्रद्रोहे च पातकम् ॥

yadyapyete na paśyanti lobhopahatacetasaḥ,

kulakṣayakṛtaṃ doṣaṃ mitradrohe ca pātakam.

 

1.38 कथं न ज्ञेयमस्माभिः पापादस्मान्निवर्तितुम् ।

कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं प्रपश्यद्भिर्जनार्दन ॥

kathaṃ na jñeyamasmābhiḥ pāpādasmānnivartitum,

kulakṣayakṛtaṃ doṣaṃ prapaśyadbhirjanārdana.

Although these, with a consciousness clouded with greed, see no guilt in the destruction of the family, no crime in hostility to friends, why should not we have the wisdom to draw hack from such a sin, O Janardana, we who see the evil in the destruction of the family?

 

1.39 कुल-क्षये प्रणश्यन्ति कुल-धर्माः सनातनाः ।

धर्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नम् अधर्मोऽभिभवत्युत ॥

kula-kṣaye praṇaśyanti kula-dharmāḥ sanātanāḥ,

dharme naṣṭe kulaṃ kṛtsnam adharmo'bhibhavatyuta.

In the annihilation of the family the eternal traditions of the family are destroyed; in the collapse of traditions, lawlessness overcomes the whole family,

 

1.40 अधर्माभिभवात्कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुलस्त्रियः ।

स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसंकरः ॥

adharmābhibhavātkṛṣṇa praduṣyanti kulastriyaḥ,

strīṣu duṣṭāsu vārṣṇeya jāyate varṇasaṅkaraḥ.

Owing to predominance of lawlessness, O Krishna, the women of the family become corrupt; women corrupted, of the Varnas arises.

 

1.41 संकरो नरकायैव कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च ।

पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः ॥

saṅkaro narakāyaiva kulaghnānāṃ kulasya ca,

patanti pitaro hyeṣāṃ luptapiṇḍodakakriyāḥ.

This confusion leads to hell the ruiners of the family, and the family; for their ancestors fall, deprived of pinda (rice offering) and libations.

 

1.42 दोषैरेतैः कुलघ्नानां वर्णसंकरकारकैः ।

उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्माः कुलधर्माश्च शाश्वताः ॥

doṣairetaiḥ kulaghnānāṃ varṇasaṅkarakārakaiḥ,

utsādyante jātidharmāḥ kuladharmāśca śāśvatāḥ.

By these misdeeds of the ruiners of the family leading to the confusion of the orders, the eternal laws of the race and moral law of the family are destroyed.

 

1.43 उत्सन्नकुलधर्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्दन ।

नरके नियतं वासो भवतीत्यनुशुश्रुम ॥

utsannakuladharmāṇāṃ manuṣyāṇāṃ janārdana,

narake niyataṃ vāso bhavatītyanuśuśruma.

And men whose family morals are corrupted, O Janardana, live for ever in hell. Thus have we heard.

 

1.44 अहो बत महत् पापं कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयम् ।

यद् राज्य-सुख-लोभेन हन्तुं स्वजनम् उद्यताः ॥

aho bata mahat pāpaṃ kartuṃ vyavasitā vayam,

yad rājya-sukha-lobhena hantuṃ svajanam udyatāḥ.

Alas! we were engaged in committing a great sin, we who were endeavouring to kill our own people through greed of the pleasures of kingship.

 

1.45 यदि मामप्रतीकारमशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः ।

धार्तराष्ट्रा रणे हन्युस्तन्मे क्षेमतरं भवेत् ॥

yadi māmapratīkāramaśastraṃ śastrapāṇayaḥ,

dhārtarāṣṭrā raṇe hanyustanme kṣemataraṃ bhavet.

It is more for my welfare that the sons of Dhritarashtra armed should slay me unarmed and unresisting. (I will not fight.)

 

1.46 सञ्जय उवाच:

एवमुक्त्वार्जुनः संख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् ।

विसृज्य सशरं चापं शोक-संविग्न-मानसः ॥

sañjaya uvāca:

evamuktvārjunaḥ saṅkhye rathopastha upāviśat,

visṛjya saśaraṃ cāpaṃ śoka-saṃvigna-mānasaḥ.

Sanjaya said: Having thus spoken on the battlefield, Arjuna sank down on the seat of the chariot, casting down the divine bow and the inexhaustible quiver (given to him by the gods for that tremendous hour), his spirit overwhelmed with sorrow.

 

ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद् भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु

ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे

अर्जुनविषादयोगो नाम प्रथमोऽध्यायः

oṃ tatsaditi śrīmad bhagavadgītāsūpaniṣatsu

brahmavidyāyāṃ yogaśāstre śrīkṛṣṇārjunasaṃvāde

arjunaviṣādayogo nāma prathamo'dhyāyaḥ