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SRI AUROBINDO

Bhagavad gita

Paraphrase

अथ पंचदशोऽध्यायः (पुरुषोत्तमयोगः)

atha paṃcadaśo'dhyāyaḥ (puruṣottamayogaḥ)

15. The Yoga of the Supreme Person (Purushottama)

The translation of the Gita presented here was compiled mainly from Sri Aurobindo's Essays on the Gita. It first appeared in The Message of the Gita, edited by Anilbaran Roy, in 1938. Sri Aurobindo approved this book for publication; however, he made it clear in one of his letters that the translations in the Essays were "more explanatory than textually precise or cast in a literary style". Many of them are paraphrases rather than strict translations. Sri Aurobindo also wrote that he did not wish extracts from the Essays "to go out as my translation of the Gita". This should be borne in mind by the reader as he mattes use of this translation, which has been provided as a bridge between the Gita and Sri Aurobindo's Essays.

 

15.01 श्रीभगवानुवाच:

ऊर्ध्वमूलमधःशाखमश्वत्थं प्राहुरव्ययम् ।

छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि यस्तं वेद स वेदवित् ॥

śrībhagavānuvāca:

ūrdhvamūlamadhaḥśākhamaśvatthaṃ prāhuravyayam,

chandāṃsi yasya parṇāni yastaṃ veda sa vedavit.

The Blessed Lord said: With its original source above (in the Eternal), its branches stretching below, the Ashwattha is said to be eternal and imperishable; the leaves of it are the hymns of the Veda; he who knows it is the Veda-knower.

 

15.02 अधश्चोर्ध्वं प्रसृतास्तस्य शाखा

गुणप्रवृद्धा विषयप्रवालाः ।

अधश्च मूलान्यनुसंततानि

कर्मानुबन्धीनि मनुष्यलोके ॥

adhaścordhvaṃ prasṛtāstasya śākhā

guṇapravṛddhā viṣayapravālāḥ,

adhaśca mūlānyanusaṃtatāni

karmānubandhīni manuṣyaloke.

The branches of this cosmic tree extend both below and above (below in the material, above in the supraphysical planes), they grow by the gunas of Nature; the sensible objects are its foliage, downward here into the world of men it plunges its roots of attachment and desire with their consequences of an endlessly developing action.

 

15.03 न रूपमस्येह तथोपलभ्यते

नान्तो न चादिर्न च संप्रतिष्ठा ।

अश्वत्थमेनं सुविरूढमूलं

असंगशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा ॥

na rūpamasyeha tathopalabhyate

nānto na cādirna ca saṃpratiṣṭhā,

aśvatthamenaṃ suvirūḍhamūlaṃ

asaṅgaśastreṇa dṛḍhena chittvā.

15.04 ततः पदं तत्परिमार्गितव्यं

यस्मिन्गता न निवर्तन्ति भूयः ।

तमेव चाद्यं पुरुषं प्रपद्ये ।

यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी ॥

tataḥ padaṃ tatparimārgitavyaṃ

yasmingatā na nivartanti bhūyaḥ,

tameva cādyaṃ puruṣaṃ prapadye,

yataḥ pravṛttiḥ prasṛtā purāṇī.

The real form of it cannot be perceived by us in this material world of man's embodiment, nor its beginning nor its end, nor its foundation, having cut down this firmly rooted Ashwattha by the strong sword of detachment, one should seek for that highest goal whence, once having reached it. there is no compulsion of return to mortal life; I turn away (says the Vedantic verse) to seek that original Soul alone from whom proceeds the ancient sempiternal urge to action.

 

15.05 निर्मानमोहा जितसंगदोषा

अध्यात्मनित्या विनिवृत्तकामाः ।

द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञैः

गच्छन्त्यमूढाः पदमव्ययं तत् ॥

nirmānamohā jitasaṅgadoṣā

adhyātmanityā vinivṛttakāmāḥ,

dvandvairvimuktāḥ sukhaduḥkhasaṃjñaiḥ

gacchantyamūḍhāḥ padamavyayaṃ tat.

To be free from the bewilderment of this lower Maya. without egoism, the great fault of attachment conquered, all desires stilled, the duality of joy and grief cast away, always to be fixed in a pure spiritual consciousness, these are the steps of the way to that supreme Infinite.

 

15.06 न तद्भासयते सूर्यो न शशांको न पावकः ।

यद्गत्वा न निवर्तंते तद्धाम परमं मम ॥

na tadbhāsayate sūryo na śaśāṅko na pāvakaḥ,

yadgatvā na nivartaṃte taddhāma paramaṃ mama.

There we find the timeless being which is not illumined by sun or moon or fire (but is itself the light of the presence of the eternal Purusha); having gone thither they return not; that is the highest eternal status of My Being.

 

15.07 ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः ।

मनःषष्ठानीन्द्रियाणि प्रकृतिस्थानि कर्षति ॥

mamaivāṃśo jīvaloke jīvabhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ,

manaḥṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛtisthāni karṣati.

It is an eternal portion of Me that becomes the Jiva in the world of living creatures and cultivates the subjective powers of Prakriti, mind and the five senses.

 

15.08 शरीरं यदवाप्नोति यच्चाप्युत्क्रामतीश्वरः ।

गृहित्वैतानि संयाति वायुर्गंधानिवाशयात् ॥

śarīraṃ yadavāpnoti yaccāpyutkrāmatīśvaraḥ,

gṛhitvaitāni saṃyāti vāyurgaṃdhānivāśayāt.

When the Lord takes up this body (he brings in with him the mind and the senses) and in his going forth too (casting away the body) he goes taking them as the wind takes the perfumes from a vase.

 

15.09 श्रोत्रं चक्षुः स्पर्शनं च रसनं घ्राणमेव च ।

अधिष्ठाय मनश्चायं विषयानुपसेवते ॥

śrotraṃ cakṣuḥ sparśanaṃ ca rasanaṃ ghrāṇameva ca,

adhiṣṭhāya manaścāyaṃ viṣayānupasevate.

The ear, the eye, the touch, the taste and the smell, using these and the mind also, he enjoys the objects of mind and sense as the indwelling and overdwelling Soul.

 

15.10 उत्क्रामन्तं स्थितं वाऽपि भुंजानं वा गुणान्वितम् ।

विमूढा नानुपश्यन्ति पश्यन्ति ज्ञानचक्षुषः ॥

utkrāmantaṃ sthitaṃ vā'pi bhuṃjānaṃ vā guṇānvitam,

vimūḍhā nānupaśyanti paśyanti jñānacakṣuṣaḥ.

The deluded do not perceive him in his coming in and his going forth or in his staying and enjoying and assumption of quality: they perceive who have the eye of knowledge.

 

15.11 यतन्तो योगिनश्चैनं पश्यन्त्यात्मन्यवस्थितम् ।

यतन्तोऽप्यकृतात्मानो नैनं पश्यंत्यचेतसः ॥

yatanto yoginaścainaṃ paśyantyātmanyavasthitam,

yatanto'pyakṛtātmāno nainaṃ paśyaṃtyacetasaḥ.

The Yogins who strive, see the Lord in themselves: but though they strive to do so, the ignorant perceive Him not, as they are not formed in the spiritual mould.

 

15.12 यदादित्यगतं तेजो जगद्भासयतेऽखिलम् ।

यच्चन्द्रमसि यच्चाग्नौ तत्तेजो विद्धि मामकम् ॥

yadādityagataṃ tejo jagadbhāsayate'khilam,

yaccandramasi yaccāgnau tattejo viddhi māmakam.

The light of the sun that illumines all this world, that which is in the moon and in fire, that light know as from Me.

 

15.13 गामाविश्य च भूतानि धारयाम्यहमोजसा ।

पुष्णामि चौषधीः सर्वाः सोमो भूत्वा रसात्मकः ॥

gāmāviśya ca bhūtāni dhārayāmyahamojasā,

puṣṇāmi cauṣadhīḥ sarvāḥ somo bhūtvā rasātmakaḥ.

I have entered into this form of earth (and am the spirit of its material force) and sustain by My might these multitudes. I am the godhead of Soma who by the rasa (the sap in the earth-mother) nourishes all plants and trees.

 

15.14 अहं वैश्वानरो भूत्वा प्राणिनां देहम् आश्रितः ।

प्राण्ऽआपान-समायुक्तः पचाम्य् अन्नं चतुर्-विधम् ॥

ahaṃ vaiśvānaro bhūtvā prāṇināṃ deham āśritaḥ,

prāṇ'āpāna-samāyuktaḥ pacāmy annaṃ catur-vidham.

I. having become the flame of life, sustain the physical body of living creatures, and united with Prana and Apana. digest the four kinds of food.

 

15.15 सर्वस्य चाहं हृदि सन्निविष्टो

मत्तः स्मृतिर्ज्ञानमपोहनंच ।

वेदैश्च सर्वैरहमेव वेद्यो

वेदान्तकृद्वेदविदेव चाहम् ॥

sarvasya cāhaṃ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo

mattaḥ smṛtirj˝ānamapohanaṃca,

vedaiśca sarvairahameva vedyo

vedāntakṛdvedavideva cāham.

I am lodged in the heart of all; from Me are memory and knowledge and their absence. And that which is known by all the Vedas (and by all forms of knowing) am I; and I indeed the knower of Veda and the maker of Vedanta.

 

15.16 द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च ।

क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते ॥

dvāvimau puruṣau loke kṣaraścākṣara eva ca,

kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni kūṭastho'kṣara ucyate.

There are two Purushas (spiritual beings) in this world, the immutable (and impersonal) and the mutable (and personal); the mutable is all these existences, the Kutastha (the high-seated consciousness of the Brahmic status) is called the immutable.

 

15.17 उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः परमात्मेत्युधाहृतः ।

यो लोकत्रयमाविश्य बिभर्त्यव्यय ईश्वरः ॥

uttamaḥ puruṣastvanyaḥ paramātmetyudhāhṛtaḥ,

yo lokatrayamāviśya bibhartyavyaya īśvaraḥ.

But other than these two is that highest spirit called the supreme Self, who enters the three worlds and upbears them, (he imperishable Lord.

 

15.18 यस्मात्क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः ।

अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदेच प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः ॥

yasmātkṣaramatīto'hamakṣarādapi cottamaḥ,

ato'smi loke vedeca prathitaḥ puruṣottamaḥ.

Since I am beyond the mutable and am greater and higher even than the immutable, in the world and the Veda I am proclaimed as the Purushottama (the supreme Self).

 

15.19 यो मामेवमसंमूढो जानातिपुरुषोत्तमम् ।

स सर्वविद्भजति मां सर्वभावेन भारत ॥

yo māmevamasaṃmūḍho jānātipuruṣottamam,

sa sarvavidbhajati māṃ sarvabhāvena bhārata.

He who undcluded thus has knowledge of Me as the Purushottama. adores Me (has bhakti for Me) with all-knowledge and in every way of his natural being.

 

15.20 इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रमिदमुक्तं मयाऽनघ ।

एतत्बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान्स्यात्कृतकृत्यश्च भारत ॥

iti guhyatamaṃ śāstramidamuktaṃ mayā'nagha,

etatbuddhvā buddhimānsyātkṛtakṛtyaśca bhārata.

Thus by Me the most secret shastra (the supreme teaching and science) has been told, O sinless one. Absolutely to know it is to be perfected in understanding and successful in the supreme sense, O Bharata.

 

ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद् भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु

ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुन संवादे

पुरुषोत्तमयोगो नाम पंचदशोऽध्यायः

oṃ tatsaditi śrīmad bhagavadgītāsūpaniṣatsu

brahmavidyāyāṃ yogaśāstre śrīkṛṣṇārjuna saṃvāde

puruṣottamayogo nāma paṃcadaśo'dhyāyaḥ