Home Page |Rig Veda

Foreword from compiler and translator

These pages contain:

1. original text of the Rigveda

2. Texts by Sri Aurobindo (translations and commentaries)

3. Interlinear translation of Rigveda made in the light of Sri Aurobindo by compiler.

1. Rigveda text

Text of Rigveda is split into Suktas (one Sukta per one file). Every Sukta contains text of Samhita and text of Padapatha which may be viewed in Devanagari script and in transliteration, with or without accentuation. There are information on the Sukta at the beginning of the file: its number at Mandala, author (authors); addressed god (gods); meters. Then there are riks. Their texts are followed by interlinear translation from Sanskrit into English (for now it is accomplished only for 1st Mandala).

For transliteration was used IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration) with such deviations: (1) for was used symbol ; (2) for – symbol ; (3) for (ananusika) – symbol .

Samhita of Rigveda was transferred by the oral traditions of several schools (śākhā), some of which has their own Samhita. Mahābhāṣya Patanjali (circa 150 BC) mentions 21 schools, five schools survives (they are mentioned at caraṇavyūha), but only 3 of them preserved their Samhitas at manuscripts:

1. śākala. It is Samhita of this school is identified with Rigveda and considered as “canonical”.

2. āśvalāyana. The school preserved its Samhita but its oral tradition is lost. Its Samhita includes 212 riks more then śākala’s Samhita. These riks are belong to a lower date; 40 riks are in the Suktas that already exist at śākala, and 172 riks form 15 standalone Suktas, that do not exist at śākala1.

3. kauṣītaki (śāṅkhāyana). This school preserved its Samhita (consimilar to āśvalāyana) and Kaushitaki Brahmana and Upanishada.

4. bāṣkala. Preserved only its Upanishada (part of Aranyaka). Samhita and Brahmana were lost after 16 cent. There is also collection of 98 “non-canonical” Suktas khilāni (Kashmir manuskript, keeping at Poona2).

5. māṇḍūkāyana. Perhaps most old school. Samhita was lost.

We are publishing here the “canonical” Samhita of śākala. It is given according3 to Rig-Veda-Samhita. The Sacred Hymns of the Brahmans. Together with the commentary of Sayanakarya / Edited by F. Max Müller. Published under the patronage of His Highness the Maharajah of Vijayanagara.– In 4 volumes.– Second Edition.– London: Oxford University Press Warehouse, Amen Corner, 1890–92. Also we used The Hymns of the Rig-Veda in the Samhita and Pada Texts / F. Max Müller.– Second edition.– In 2 volumes.– London: Trübner and Co, 1877.

2. Texts by Sri Aurobindo

If we found some Sri Aurobindo’s texts to some Sukta, we included all these texts after text of Sukta; these texts are in an reverse chronologic order (i.e. texts with lower date stand first). For now we prepared texts only for 1st Mandala.

1. Brief history of translations of Rigveda by Sri Aurobindo

At 1905–1907, before studying  of Rigveda, Sri Aurobindo wrote: “At the root of all that we Hindus have done, thought and said through these many thousands of years, behind all we are and seek to be, there lies concealed, the fount of our philosophies, the bedrock of our religions, the kernel of our thought, the explanation of our ethics and society, the summary of our civilisation, the rivet of our nationality, a small body of speech, Veda. From this one seed developing into many forms the multitudinous and magnificent birth called Hinduism draws its inexhaustible existence. Buddhism too with its offshoot, Christianity, flows from the same original source. It has left its stamp on Persia, through Persia on Judaism, through Judaism, Christianity and Sufism on Islam, and through Buddha on Confucianism, and through Christ and mediaeval mysticism, Greek and German philosophy and Sanskrit learning on the thought and civilisation of Europe. There is no part of the world's spirituality, of the world's religion, of the world's thought which would be what it is today, if the Veda had not existed. Of no other body of speech in the world can this be said.4

At 1912 Sri Aurobindo began to study Rigveda: “It was, therefore, with a double interest that for the first time I took up the Veda in the original, though without any immediate intention of a close or serious study. It did not take long to see that the Vedic indications of a racial division between Aryans and Dasyus and the identification of the latter with the indigenous Indians were of a far flimsier character than I had supposed. But far more interesting to me was the discovery of a considerable body of profound psychological thought and experience lying neglected in these ancient hymns. And the importance of this element increased in my eyes when I found, first, that the mantras of the Veda illuminated with a clear and exact light psychological experiences of my own for which I had found no sufficient explanation either in European psychology or in the teachings of Yoga or of Vedanta, so far as I was acquainted with them, and, secondly, that they shed light on obscure passages and ideas of the Upanishads to which, previously, I could attach no exact meaning and gave at the same time a new sense to much in the Puranas.5” At the same year Sri Aurobindo wrote to his disciple:  “Sri Krishna has shown me the true meaning of the Vedas, not only so, but he has shown me a new Science of Philology showing the process and origins of human speech so that a new Nirukta can be formed and the new interpretation of the Veda based upon it6. Truly, Veda is Shruti – it was revealed to old Rishis, as  to the new ones! But despite general vision of the Veda, its truths, its aims and discipline there were ahead decades of most scrupulous work, when all details must be worked out, every difficulty met, unique linguistic investigations carried on, lost meanings reconstructed, translation method formulated.

From 1912 till 1913 Sri Aurobindo wrote 80 manuscripts on Veda. At 1914–16 he published at monthly Arya series The Secret of the Veda and Selected hymns; at 1915–1917 series Hymns of the Atris; at 1920 – translations of else 12 hymns.

At 1946 was published a little book Hymns to the Mystic Fire. At the foreword Sri Aurobindo wrote: “the object of this publication is only to present them [translations] in a permanent form for disciples and those who are inclined to see more in the Vedas than a superficial liturgy and would be interested in knowing what might be the esoteric sense of this ancient Scripture.”. When we compare the first and the last translations we can see how long way was passed: many initial meanings and even conceptions were changed so these translations often much differ. But even on most late translations Sri Aurobindo wrote: “In many passages I have had to leave a provisional rendering; it was intended to keep the final decision on the point until the time when a more considerable body of the hymns had been translated and were ready for publication; but this time has not yet come.” But this book was the last intravital publication on the Veda. We have about 3700 translated riks (i.e. 35% of Veda). The fifth Mandala was translated about at 83%; 1–4 Mandalas at 50%; 6, 7 Mandala at 30%; 8–10 Mandalas at 20% or less. Before and during Arya (1912 – 1921), Sri Aurobindo worked mostly on the 1st and 5th Mandalas; afterwards – 3, 8 and 10 Mandalas.

3. Interlinear translation

At 1946 at the foreword to Hymns to the Mystic Fire Sri Aurobindo wrote: “ fact the method has been to start with a bare and scrupulously exact rendering of the actual language and adhere to that as the basis of the interpretation; for it is only so that we can find out the actual thoughts of these ancient mystics7.” (Besides, the interlinear translation enable us to see — are some translations of the Veda by any authors either interpretations of the Veda itself – without evaluation of accuracy of such interpretations – or they are detached from actual text of the Veda being ideas of the authors themselves.)

Again, as Sri Aurobindo wrote at 1915: “....For while a literal English rendering of the hymns of the ancient Illuminates would be a falsification of their sense and spirit, a version which aimed at bringing all the real thought to the surface would be an interpretation rather than a translation. I have essayed a sort of middle path,— a free and plastic form which shall follow the turns of the original and yet admit a certain number of interpretative devices sufficient for the light of the Vedic truth to gleam out from its veil of symbol and image.... It would have been possible to present a literal version on condition of following it up by pages of commentary charged with the real sense of the words and the hidden message of the thought. But this would be a cumbrous method useful only to the scholar and the careful student8.”

So we can constate, the both translations – a literal and an interpretative – are needed, because every one solves its own problems and they supplement one another, not exclude. While we have Sri Aurobindo’s translations only for 30% of the Veda, he give us instrumentation for its translation — his psychological method, fixed meanings of many Vedic words, his interpretation of many Vedic conceptions. So, wanting to read all Rigveda in Sri Aurobindo’s light, we dared an attempt (sometimes more successful, sometimes less) to make – by using this instrumentation – literal (so far) interlinear translation of all Rigveda. This translation is placed after Sanskrit text of the riks. This translation makes no pretence to present viewing of Sri Aurobindo (it is his prerogative), does not it claim to be relevant (for this we must have all knowledge of Rishis – as temporal and lost with their time inasmuch as universal and eternal Brahmavidya).

Occasionally the interlinear translation is differ from Sri Aurobindo’s translations: sometimes to show alternative possibility, sometimes because of using of latter meanings of the words from another Sri Aurobindo’s texts.

An effectuation of interlinear translation presents key difficulty: many Vedic words have many meanings, but the ability to choose one meaning from many turns (to some degree) any literal translation into interpretative and so we can easily make an error. It is Sri Aurobindo’s understanding of the sense of Veda and Rishi’s thought enables him to fix meaning of Vedic words. Therefore our first task was to collect all these fixed by him meanings. For this aim we compared Sri Aurobindo’s texts with original Sanskrit and made a list of meanings for every Vedic word, then we choose later meanings as most valid, keeping them in our mind or using them directly during translation of Rigveda.

Some words (about 40% of all lexicon of the first Mandala) we were forced to take from some dictionaries (mostly Monier-Williams’) or from available interpretations of the Veda, while the meaning of these words often is doubtful.

Special marks:

[    ] within square brackets after every word of phrase of the interlinear translation there is a number of appropriate Vedic word or phrase at Padapatha. So reader can find all links between original and translation, where order of the words was not preserved9.

(    ) At parenthesis – interpretative meaning of the word after its outer meaning.

{  } implicit word, not presented at original.

| Several possible meanings divided by symbol «|».

(?) very conjectural meaning.

< > Short notes by translator that were not moved to footnotes.

4. Brief history of commentaries and translations of Rigveda

The first interpretation is at two Brahmanas: Aitareya brāhmaṇa (perhaps 8-6 cent. BC, 40 chapters) and Kauṣītaki (later, 30 chapters). To the Brahmanas’ time real knowledge of Veda was lost10 – Veda transferred as oral tradition and practised as ritual and Brahmanas mostly attempted to formalize and interpret this ritual. So later Indian tradition refers Brahmans and Samhita to karmakāṇḍa, i.e. to the works.

Aitareya and Śāṅkhāyana āraṇyaka are the part of Brahmans and they pay more attention to the inner yajna, so tradition  refers them to jñānakāṇḍa, i.e. knowledge, together with 10 Upanishads associated with Rigveda: Aitareya, Kauśītāki (Mukhya canon), Ātmabodha, Mudgala (Samanya), Nirvāṇa (Sannyasa), Tripura, Saubhāgya-lakshmi, Bahvṛca (Shakta), Akṣamālika (Shaiva), Nādabindu (Yoga). Upanishads are trying to reopen lost knowledge of the Veda.

Samhita, Brahmans, Aranyaks, Upanishads are regarded as śruti (“heard”, i.e. revealed knowledge). Six Vedangas are regarded (inter alia) as smṛti (something that come from man’s mind): śikṣā, phonetics and phonology; chandas, prosody; vyākaraṇa, grammar; jyotiṣa, astrology and astronomy; kalpa, ritual; nirukta, etymology. One of the first commentary was Nirukta by Yaska, compiled, perhaps, about 5 cent. BC. Next commentator after Yaska was Shaunaka (author of ṛgveda prātiśakhya, bṛhaddevata, caraṇa-vyūha and six anukramaṇī). Also we have comments by Jaimini (author of Mimansa sutras, who regarded Veda as ritual), Udhitacharya, Skandasvamin (circa. 6-8 cent.), Venkata-Madhav (veṅkaṭamādhava, circa 10-12 cent.). Commentary of Madhavacharya (13 cent.) is of peculiar interest because of adhyatmic (spiritual) interpretation.

Commentary of Sayana (14 cent.) became de facto basis, on which European Science of 19-21 cent. built its works, and together with this Science he made deep impression on India. Often, even if some authors refuse him, their works may be placed on the same bookshelf together because of their poorness of final sense. It is primary erroneous viewing of the Veda as historical or just ritualistic text, collection of piacular hymns to the Nature’s forces, images of savage and pastoral being and incomprehension of its spiritual nature were a source of incorrect interpretations, which only accidentally allowed some diffused light. And even when interpreter laboured to impartial and exact scientific translation, the matrix of primordial defective interpretation often was fatal.

Works that trying to find true, spiritual, sense of Rigveda are  few and among them works by Sri Aurobindo have peculiar place, because of his supramental knowledge and experience that knows knowledge and experience of Rishis and clearly see Veda’s lines, following them without wandering and errors.

ॐ सत्यं ज्ञानं ज्योतिररविन्द

Michael Dmitriev, 2019


Short list of comments, translations and dictionaries

This list contains mostly works in European languages.

I. Brahmanas of Rigveda

1. Keith, Arthur Berriedale (1879-1944). Rigveda Brahmanas: The Aitareya and Kaushitaki Brahmanas of the Rigveda / Translated from the original Sanskrit by Arthur Berriedale Keith, D.C.L., D. Litt. of the inner temple, Barrister-at-law, Regius professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology at the University of Edinburgh, Late of His Majesty's Colonial Office, Translator of the Veda of the Black Yajus Shcool.– Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univesity Press, 1920.– 555 p. (The Harvard Oriental Series, Volume 25).

2. The Aitareya Brahmana of the Rigveda, Containing the Earliest Speculations of the Brahmans on the Meaning of the Sacrificial Prayers and on the Origin, Performance and Sense of the Rites of Vedic Religion / Edited, translated and explained by Martin Haug, P.D. Superintendant of Sanscrit Studies in the Poona College.– Vol 2.– Translation, with notes.– Bombay: Government Central book Depot.; London: Trübner and Co, 1863.– 535 p.

3. The Aitareya Brahmanana of the Rigveda: [Translated into English] // Rig Veda Samhita: [Samhita, Padapatha and Sayana’s commentary in Kannada / Translated with Exhaustive Critical Notes by Asthana Mahavidwan; Editor H.P. Venkata Rao; sponsored by the Maharaja of Mysore, Sri Padiyar Bahadur Jayachamarajendra.– In 36 volumes.– Volume 31].– Mysore, [1955?].– 1048 p.

II. Aranyaks of Rigveda

4. The Aitareya Aranyaka / Edited from Manuscripts in the India office and the Library of the Royal Asiatic Society with Introduction, Translation, Notes, Indexes and an Appendix Containing the Portion Hitherto Unpublished of the Sankhayana Aranyaka by Arthur Berriedale Keith of the Colonial Office.– Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909.– 390 p.

5. Śāṅkhāyana āraṇyaka with an Appendix on the Mahāvrata / [Translated into English] by Arthur Berriedale Keith, M.A., B.C.L. of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law, and of the Colonial Office.– London: The Royal Asiatic Society, 1908.– 85 p.

III. Upanishads of Rigveda

6. Aitareya Upanishad // Eight Upaniṣads: with Commentary of Śaṅkarācārya.– Volume 2.– Aitareya, Muṇḍaka, Māṇḍūkya, Kārikā and Praśna / Translated into English by Swāmī Gambhīrānanda.– Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama, 1937.– 514 p.

7. Aksha Malika Upanishad / Translated into English by Srinivasan K. // The 108 Upanishads: Translated into English: [Internet file:]

8. Ātma-bodhopaniṣad // The Sāmānya Vedānta Upaniṣads: Translated into English (On the basis of the Commentary of Sri Upaniṣad-Brahma-Yogin) by Sri Shrinivāsa Ayyangār, B.A., L.T. and edited by pandit S. Subrahmanya Sāstri, F.T.S.– Adyar; Madras: The Adyar Library, 1941, pp. 96-104.

9. Bahvṛcopaniṣad // The Śākta ūpaniṣads: Translated into English. Based on the Commentary of Upaniṣad-Brahmayogin by Dr. A.G. Krishna Warrier.– Adyar; Chennai: The Adyar Library and Research Center, 1967, pp. 73-77.– ISBN 81-85141-27-4

10. Krishna Warrier A. G. Kauṣītaki brāhmaṇa upaniṣad, with an anonymous unpublished Commentary in Sanskrit / Edited by E.R. Sreekrishna Sarma with an English Translation by the late A.G. Krishna Warrier based on the Upaniṣad-Brahmayogin Commentary.– First edition.– Madras: The Adyar Library and Research Center, 1990.– 96 p.– ISBN 81-85141-06-1

11. The Kaushītaki-Brāhmaṇa-Upanishad with the Commentary of Śankarananda / Edited with an English Translation by E.B. Cowell, M.A.– Calcutta: C.B. Lewis, Baptist Mission Press, 1861.– 137 p. [of Sanskrit text], 172 p. [of text in English]; Appendix [17 p.] (Bibliotheca Indica; Collection of oriental works / Published under the superintendence of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No 19).

12. Nādabiṇḍu-Upanishad of Ṛgveda // Thirty Minor Upanishaḍs / Translated by K. Nārāyaṇasvāmi Aiyar.– Madras, 1914, pp. 254-260.

13. Mudgala, Saubhagya, Tripura Upanishad / Translated into English by A. G. Krishna Warrier.– Chennai: The Theosophical Publishing House // The 108 Upanishads: Translated into English: [Internet file: UpanishadsEnglishTranslation]

14. Nikhilananda, Swami. Self-Knowledge (Ātmabodha) / An English Translation of Śankarāchārya's Ātmabodha with Notes, Comments, and Introduction by Swami Nikhilananda.– New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, 1946.– 228 p.

15. Nirvāṇopaniṣad // The Saṁnyāsa Upaniṣads / Translated into English (based on the Commentary of Upaniṣad-Brahmayogin) by Prof. A.A. Ramanathan.– Madras: The Adyar Library and Research Center, 1978, pp. 127-141.– ISBN 0-8356-7511-4.

16. Айтарея Упанишада, Каушитаки Упанишада // Упанишады.– В 3 книгах / Перевод, предисловие и комментарии А.Я. Сыркина.– Книга 2.– М: Ладомир, 1992.– 331 с. (Памятники литературы народов Востока. XVI / АН СССР. Ин-т Востоковедения)

IV. Commentary to Rigveda before 18 cent.

17. Jâska’s Nirukta. Sammt den Nighaṇṭavas / herausgeben und erläutert von Rudolph Roth.– Göttingen: Verlad der Dieterichschen Buchhandlung, 1852.– 230 p. Комментарий Яски, датируемый 1000-500 гг. до н.э.

18. Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1854-1930). The Bṛhad-devatā attributed to Śaunaka: A Summary of the Deities and myths of the Rig-Veda / Critically edited in the original Sanskrit with an Introduction and seven Appendices, and translated into English with critical and illustrative notes by Arthur Anthony Macdonell, boden professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford and fellow of Balliol College.– In 2 parts.– Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1904. (Harvard Oriental Series / Edited with the cooperation of various scholars by Charles Rockwell Lanman). Part I.– Introduction and text and appendices.– 198 p.; Part II.– Translations and notes.– 334 p.

19. Madhvacharya. ऋग्भाष्यटीकाप्रध्यायप्ररंभः = Rig Veda Bhashya.– In Sanskrit. Охватывает первые 40 сукт Ригведы и интерпретирует её в адхьятмическом ключе. Эта интерпретация была позднее расширена учениками его школы Свами Джаятиртхой и Рагхавендрой.

20. Mādhavakṛtā. Ṛgvedavyākhyā: [Commentary by Mādhava] / General Editor G. Srinivasa Murti, B.A., M.B. & C.M., Vaidyaratna, Director, Adyar Library.– In 2 parts.– Adyar; Madras: The Theosophical Society, [1947]. (The Adhyar Library Series – No 61. Besant Centenary Volume)

21. Ṛgveda: with the Padapāṭha and the available portions of the Bhāṣya-s by Skandasvāmin and Udgita, the Vyākhyā by Veṅkaṭamādhava and Mudgala's Vṛtti base on Sayaṇa-bhāṣya / Edited, critically, and annotated with text-comparative data from original manuscripts and other available materials by Vishva Bandhu in collaboration with Bhīm Dev, Amar Nāth, K.S. Rāmaswāmi Sāstrī and Pitāmbar Datta.– In 7 parts.– Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, 1963-1965.

22. Ṛgveda-Samhita [: Samhita text with accent marks; Sākalya’s Padapāṭha, Sāyanācārya's commentary, bhāṣya by Sāyaṇa, extracts from other Indian commentators viz. Skandasvāmin, Veṅkaṭamādhava, Guṇavishnu, Anāndatīrtha etc., with trilingual translations and explanatory notes in English, Hindi and Bengali, with English translation in the light of Sāyaṇabhāṣya, crit. notes embodying different interpretations of European scholars and synopsis of results of historical, geological, archaeological and philological researches.].– Part 1 / Published by Satis Chandra Seal, M.A. B.L; [M.M. Sītārāma Ṣāstrī, Editor of Sayana’s commentary; with English translations and notes by Sītānātha Pradhāna].– Calcutta: Indian Research Institute, Aug. 1933.– 564 p.; Part II, Sept. 1933 ; Part III, Oct.-Dec. 1933; Part IV, Jan.-Mar. 1934; Part V, Dec. 1934; Part VI, Aug. 1936. (Indian Research Institute Publications. Vedic Series)

23. Ṛgveda-Saṃhitā, with Ṛgarthadīpikā of Veṅkaṭamādhava / Ed. Sarup, Lakshman; pub. Motilal Banarasi Dass, Lahore.– In 6 Volumes. (1) Text with padapāṭha. (2) Hitherto unpublished pre-Sayana commentary of Veṅkaṭamādhava. (3) Critical apparatus containing all the different interpretations of ṚV—words, available from Indian sources. [Venkata offer’s an explanation of most obscure passages of RV.; crit. and comparative foot-notes by Ed.]

24. Sayanacharya. Bhumika = Commentary to the Rig-Veda // Rig-Veda-Samhita. The Sacred Hymns of the Brahmans. Together with the commentary of Sayanacharya / Edited by Dr. F. Max Müller.– In 4 volumes.– London: W.H. Allen and Co. Vol. 1.– 1849.– 991 p.; Vol. 2.– 1854.– 1006 p.; Vol. 3.– 1856.– 985 p.; Vol. 4.– 1862.– 927 p. Издание включает комментарий Саяны на санскрите.

25. Sayanacharya. Preface to Rigveda: translated into English.

• // Rig Veda Samhita: [Samhita, Padapatha and Sayana’s commentary in Kannada] / Translated with Exhaustive Critical Notes by Asthana Mahavidwan; Editor H.P. Venkata Rao; sponsored by the Maharaja of Mysore, Sri Padiyar Bahadur Jayachamarajendra.– [In 36 volumes]. Mysore, 1949–55.

• // Rgveda-Samhita.– Part 1 / [M.M. Sītārāma Ṣāstrī, Editor of Sayana’s commentary; with English translations and notes by Sītānātha Pradhāna].– Calcutta: Indian Research Institute, 1933.– 564 p. (Indian Research Institute Publications. Vedic Series)

26. Shastri, Mangal Deva. Rgveda-Pratishakhya / Translated into English for the first time with additional notes, several appendices and indices by Dr. Mangal Deva Shastri together with a foreword by Dr. A.B. Keith.– Lahore: Messrs Moti Lal Banarsi Das, 1937.– 431 p. (The Punjab Oriental Series. No XXIV). Том предлагает существенное дополнение к изданию Rgveda-Pratishakhya с комментарием Уваты, опубликованному в 1931.

27. Śaunaka. Bṛhaddevatā: Translation [into English] and Explanation // Rig Veda Samhita: [Samhita, Padapatha and Sayana’s commentary in Kannada / Translated with Exhaustive Critical Notes by Asthana Mahavidwan; Editor H.P. Venkata Rao; sponsored by the Maharaja of Mysore, Sri Padiyar Bahadur Jayachamarajendra.– In 36 volumes].– Mysore, 1949–55. Комментарий Шаунаки, следующий по времени после Нирукты Яски.

28. Śaunaka. The Caraṇavyūha-sūtra of Śaunaka (with the Commentary of Mahidāsa) : In Sanskrit] / Edited by Umesh Chandra Sharma, M.A., Ph.D., Shastri, Lecturer, Department of Sanskrit, Sri Varshneya College, Aligarh.– Aligarh: Viveka Publications, 1978.– 57 p.

29. Shaunaka’s Pratishakhya of the Rigveda with the commentary of Uvatta.– [In Sanskrit] / Edited and annotated by Pandit Yugalakishora Vyasa, Late Scholar of the Benares Sanskrit College.– Benares: Messrs. Braj B. Das and Co., 1894.– 399 p.

30. Skandhasvāmin; Maheśvara. Commentary of Skandasvamin and Maheshvara on the Nirukta / Critically edited for the first time from original manuscripts with an introduction, indexes and appendices by Lakchman Sarup, M.A. (Panj.); D. Phil., (Oxon); Professor of Sanskrit Literature at the University of the Panjab, Lahore.– Vols. 3 and 4. Chapters 7-13 / with a foreword by A.C. Woolner, M.A. (Oxon.); D.Litt (Panj.); C.I.E; F.A.S.B. Vice-Chancellor and Professor of Sanskrit Language at the University of the Panjab, Lahore.– Lahore: The University of the Panjab, 1934.– 922 p.

31. The Nighantu and The Nirukta: The oldest Indian Treatise on Etymology, Philology, and Sementics / Critically edited from original manuscripts and translated for the first time into English, with introduction, exegetical and critical notes, three indexes and eight appendices by Lakshman Sarup, M.A. (Panj.), D. Phil. (Oxon.) Late professor of Sanskrit at the University of the Panjab, Lahore.– 2-nd reprint.– Delhi; Vanarasi; Patna: Motilal Banarsidass, 1967.– 298 p. [Sanskrit text]; 260 p. [text in English].

32. The Rig-veda with the Commentary of Udgitha-Acharya (X.5.4 – X.34.3).– [In Sanskrit].– Lahore: D.A.-V. College Research Department, 1935.– 114 p.

33. The Ṛgvedabhāṣya of Skandasvāmin: First Astaka.– [In Sanskrit] / Edited by C. Kunhan Raja, M.A. D. Phil (Oxon.) Reader in Sanskrit, University of Madras.– Madras: University of Madras, 1935.– 526 p. (Madras University Sanskrit Series, No 8.)

34. The Ṛksamhitā with the Bhāṣya of Skandasvāmin and Dīpikā of Veṅkaṭamādhava / Edited by K. Sāmbāśiva Śāstrī, Curator of the Department for the Publication of Sanskrit Manuskripts, Trivandrum; Published under the authority of the Government of Her Highness the Maharani Regent of Tranavcore.– [Introduction in English; text in Sanskrit].– Trivandrum: Government Press, 1929.– 133 p.

35. Vedanta-Sutras with the commentary by Sri Madhwacharya / A complete translation by S.Subba Rau, M.A.– Madras: Thompson and Co., 1904.– 374 p. Анандатиртха, или Мадхавачарья, 13 в., основатель дуалистической школы Веданты. Его комментарий Rig Veda Bhashya of Madhvacharya охватывает первые 40 сукт Ригведы и интерпретирует её в адхьятмическом ключе. Эта интерпретация была позднее расширена учениками его школы Свами Джаятиртхой и Рагхавендрой.

V. Short list of commentaries and translations 18-21 cent.

36. Benfey, Theodor (1809-1881). Übersetzung des Rigveda: Hymnus I.1-130 // Orient und Occident insbesondere in ihren gegenseitigen Beziehungen, 1862-1864. Частичный перевод, гимны 1.1-1.130

37. Bergaigne, Abel. La religion védique: D'après les hymnes du Rig-veda.– In 3 vols.– Paris, 1878-83.

38. Bhave S.S. The Soma-hymns of the Rgveda: A fresh interpretation.– In 3 parts / By S.S. Bhave, M.A., LL.B., Ph.D., Reader and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Faculty of Arts, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda.– Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1960-62.

39. Böhtlingk, Otto von. Sanskrit–Chrestomathie = Хрестоматия санскрита. Zunaechst zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen herausgegeben von O. Boehtlingk.– St. Petersburg: Gedruckt bei der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1845. – 452 s.

40. Clayton A. C. The Rigveda and Vedic Religion: with readings from the Vedas.– First published 1913. Reprint 1981.– New Delhi: Banarasi Dass and Co., 1981.– 292 p.

41. Dayananda Saraswati. The Rigveda with Maharishi Dayananda Saraswati’s Commentary / Translated into English by Acharya Dharma Deva Vidya Martanda.– In 5 vol.– New Delhi-1: Sarvadeshik Arya Dratinidhi Sabha: Reprint 2002. О работе Даянанды, выполненной на санскрите, Шри Ауробиндо пишет в Тайне Веды: “выдающаяся попытка Свами Даянанды, основателя Арья Самадж, снова установить Веду как живое религиозное Писание. Даянанда взял своим базисом свободное использование индийской филологии, которое он нашёл в Нирукте. Будучи сам великим санскритологом, он обходился со своим материалом с замечательной силой и независимостью. Особенно креативным было его использование той специфической особенности древнего санскритского языка, которая лучше всего выражена фразой Саяны: “многозначительность корней”. Мы увидим, что правильное следование этому ключу имеет первостепенную важность для понимания специфического метода ведийских Ри́ши. Интерпретация Даянанды гимнов руководствуется идеей, что Веды являются полным откровением религиозной, этической и научной истины. Их религиозное учение монотеистично и ведийские боги являются различнымиенными исследованиями.”

42. Dayananda Saraswati, Svami. Rigvedadi-Bhasya-Bhumika: an Introduction to the commentary on the four Vedas / Translated into English with original text, a critical introduction and exhaustive notes by Parmanand, Ph. D., P.E.S.– First ed.– New Delhi, 1981.– 608 p.

43. Divyanand, Soami. Rig Veda: [Translated into English].– [БМ], 2008.– 703 p.; 724 p. Очень далёкий от актуального текста интерпретирующий перевод всей Веды.

44. Dutt, Manmatha Nath Shastri. Rig-veda : Text with Sayana’s commentary and a literal prose English translation.– In four volumes.– Calcutta: Society for the resuscitation of Indian literature, 1906-1912. Неполный перевод до IX.49.3; тесно следует переводу Гриффита.

45. Forizs, Laszlo. Rigvéda – [In Bulgarian].– Budapest: Farkas Lorinc Imre, 1995 ISBN 963-85349-1-5

46. Frawley, David. Hymns from the Golden age : Selected hymns from the Rig Veda with Yogic interpretation.– Delhi etc. : Motilal Banarsidass, 1986.– XII, 256 с.; 22 см.– ISBN 81-208-0072-9. Весьма вольная интерпретация ряда гимнов.

47. Frawley, David. Wisdom of the ancient seers: Mantras of the Rig Veda.– 1st Indian ed.– Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1994.– 275 p.: ill.; 23 cm. [Rev. ed. of: Hymns from the golden age].– ISBN 8120811607 (pbk.), 8120811593 (cloth). Весьма вольная интерпретация ряда гимнов.

48. Gadgil, V. A. The Āprī Hymns in the Ṛgveda // Journal of the University of Bombay.– 4, Nov. 1935.

49. Ganguly, Basanta Kumar. The Rigveda Samhita: Vasanti Bhasya / Translated into English with the riks translated and annotated by Basanta Kumar Ganguly.– Kolkata: The Asiatic Society, 2004. Автор изучает комментарий Саяны, перевод Гриффита, бенгальские публикации; в 1971 году знакомится с Тайной Веды и Гимнами Мистическому Огню Шри Ауробиндо, затем с Капали Шастри, после чего решает написать новый комментарий к Ригведе, используя работы Шри Ауробиндо. Переводы осуществлялись в период 1981-1995. Данная книга вышла после смерти автора. Содержит множество вольных (не основанных на актуальном содержимом Веды) допущений.

50. Geldner, Karl Friedrich. Der Rigveda übersetzt und erläutert.– [Translated into German. In 3 volumes].– Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1923- (Harvard Oriental Series / Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Volumes 33-35). Полный перевод. Большим достоинством является то, что Гелднер полагал, что невозможно переводить Ригведу только на лингвистическом базисе и считал необходимым исследовать индийскую традицию.

51. Geldner, Karl Friedrich; Kaegl Adolf. Slebenzig Lieder des Rigveda / Übersetzt von Karl Geldner und Adolf Kaegl. Mit Beiträgen von R. Roth.– Tübingen: H. Laupp’schen Buchhandlung, 1875.– 176 p.

52. Ghate V. S. Lectures on Rig Veda / Delivered at the University of Bombay in 1914 by V.S. Ghate, M.A., professor of Sanskrit, Elphistone College. The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture Library.– Bombay, 1915.– 237 p.

53. Grassmann, Hermann (1809-1877). Rig-veda. Übersetzt und mit kritischen und erläuternden anmerkungen versehen von Hermann Grassmann.– [In 2 volumes. Translated into German].– Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus. Vol. 1.– 1876.– 589 p.; Vol. 2.– 1877.– 523 p. Полный перевод.

54. Griffith, Ralph Thomas Hotchkin (1826–1906) The Hymns of the Rigveda / Translated with a popular commentary by Ralph T.H. Griffith, formerly principal of Benares College.– In 3 Volumes.– Benares, E.J. Lazarus and Co. 1889-91. Полный перевод на английский, вышел после Уилсона.

55. Holland, Gary B.; van Nooten, Barend A. The Rig Veda: a metrically restored text with an introduction and notes.– Cambridge [Mass] : Harvard university press, 1994.

56. Jamison Stephanie W., Brereton Joel P. The Rigveda: The Earliest Religious Poetry of India / South Asia Research.– In 3 volumes.– New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.– ISBN 9780199370184 (Set). Авторы стараются дать нейтральный (научный) и точный перевод, однако на деле часто придерживаются ритуалистической интерпретации и потому упускает актуальное содержание стихов.

57. Kaegi, Adolf. The Rigveda: The Oldest Literature of the Indians / by Adolf Kaegi, professor in the University of Zürich. Authorised translation with additions to the notes by R. Arrowsmith, Ph. D. Instructor in Sanskrit, Racine College.– 2nd ed.– Boston: Ginn and Co., 1886.– 198 p.

58. Kapali Sastry T. V. ऋग्वेदसंहिता श्रीकपालिशास्त्रिविरचितवेदगुप्तार्थसि¬द्धाञ्ज¬नाख्यभाष्यसमेता = Rigveda Samhita: Text and commentary (Siddhāñjana).– Second edition.– In 2 volumes.– Volume 2. First Mandala, Suktas 1–32 / With English translation by M.P. Pandit and S. Shankaranarayanan.– Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1976.– 234 pages in Sanskrit, 430 pages in English. Автор позиционирует свою работу как выполненную в соответствии с психологическим методом Шри Ауробиндо. Капали Шастри предлагает перевод первых 32 гимнов. Он иногда использует значения слов из ранних текстов Шри Ауробиндо, тогда как его собственная трактовка слов и интерпретация текста порой оставляет вопросы.

59. Kapali Sastry T. V. Rig-Bhashya Bhumika = Introduction to Siddhāñjana [to the commentary on the first Ashtaka of the Rig Veda] / Translated into English by M. P. Pandit.– Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1952.– 277 p. Перевод на английский предисловия к комментарию автора к Ригведе.

60. Kashyap R. L. Rig Veda Samhitā: Text in Devanagari, Translation and Notes / Sri Aurobindo Kapali Sastry Institute of Vedic Culture (SAKSI), Bangalore; Academy of Sanskrit Research, Melkote.– Set in 12 volumes.– Bangalore, Melkote: SAKSI; ASR. Автор позиционирует свою работу как выполненную в соответствии с психологическим методом Шри Ауробиндо. К сожалению, в интерпретации порой не видна связь между полученным результатом и оригиналом и часты слишком вольные толкования слов.

61. Lal P. The golden womb of the sun / Translated from Sanskrit by P Lal.– Calcutta : Writers Workshop, 1996.

62. Langlois A. Inde – Rig-Veda / Traduction de A. Langlois.– Paris, 1870.– 614 p. (Bibliothèque Internationale Universelle: Collection des chefs-d’œurve de l’esprit humain. Monde ancien. Civilisation orientale. Poésie Lyrique)

63. Langlois A., Par M. Rig-Véda, ou Livre des hymnes.– [Translated into French].– [In 4 volumes].– Paris: F. Didot, 1848-1851. Полный перевод на французский

64. Lanman, Charles Rockwell. A Sanskrit reader: with vocabulary and notes.– London: Trübner & Co., 1884.

65. Lommel, Herman. Gedichte des Rig-Veda: In German.– München: Otto Wilhelm Barth, 1955.

66. Ludwig, Alfred (1831-1912). Der Rigveda oder Die Heiligen. Hymnen der Brâhmana / Vollständig ins Deutsche übersetzt mit Commentar und Einleitung von Alfred Ludwig.– [In 6 volumes. Translated into German].– Prag : F. Tempsky, 1876-1888. Полный перевод на немецкий, более точный, чем у Грассмана.

67. Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1854-1930). A Vedic reader for students: Containing thirty hymns of the Rigveda in the original Samhita and Pada texts, with transliteration, translation, Vocabulary.– Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917.– 263 p.

68. Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1854-1930). Hymns from the Rigveda / Selected and metrically translated by A.A. Macdonell, M.A., PH.D., Hon. LL.D. Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford and Fellow of Balliol College.– Calcutta: Association Press (Y.M.C.A.); London: Oxford University Press, [1922].– 98 p. Подборка гимнов, переведённых в стихотворной форме.

69. Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1854-1930). The Uṣas Hymns of the Ṛgveda // Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London.– 1932. Перевод и примечания к гимнам 1.48, 1.49; 1.92; 1.113; 1.123; 1.124; 3.61; 4.51; 4.52; 5.79; 5.80; 6.64; 6.65; 7.75-7.81.

70. Mahavidwan, Asthana. [Translations of Samhita in the light of Sayanacharya’s Bhumika: Translated into English] // Rig Veda Samhita: [Samhita, Padapatha and Sayana’s commentary in Kannada] / Translated with Exhaustive Critical Notes by Asthana Mahavidwan; Editor H.P. Venkata Rao; sponsored by the Maharaja of Mysore, Sri Padiyar Bahadur Jayachamarajendra.– [In 36 volumes]. Mysore, 1949–55.

71. Mankad D.R. Date of Rgveda.– Anand: Gangajala Prakashan, 2008, 1952.– VII; 94 p.; XIV.

72. Mée, Jean Le and other. Hymns from the Rig-Veda = Hymnes du Rig-Véda / Jean Le Mée; Volker Stutzer; Gerardo Del Cerro; Prem Raval.– Fremont, Calif.: Jain Pub. Co., 2004.

73. Moghe S.G. Ālaṅkārika Interpretation of the Ṛgveda: Professor Velankar and Vedic Indology / Edited with an introduction by Moghe S.G.– Delhi: Ajanta Books International, 1993.– 344 p.– ISBN 81-202-0399-2. Переводы отдельных сукт и рик

74. Müller, F. Max. Rig-Veda-Sanhita: The Sacred Hymns of the Brahmans.– Volume 1.– Hymns to the Maruts, Rudra, Vayu, and Vata / Translated and explained by F. Max Müller, M.A., LL.D.– London, Trünber and Co., 1869.– 263 p.

75. Murdoch, John. An account of the Vedas with numerous extracts from the Rig-Veda.– [The most important hymns are quoted in full; extracts are also given from the Brahmanas, and the claims of of the Arya Samaj are considered in an Appendix].– Second edition.– London; Madras : The Christian Literature Society for India, 1897.– 154 p.

76. Nicolas, Antonio T. De. Meditations through the Rg Veda.– London : Shambhala, 1978.

77. Norman Brown W.; Rosane Rocher. India and Indology: selected articles / American Institute of Indian Studies.– Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass, 1978.

78. O’Flaherty, Wendy Doniger. The Rig Veda: an anthology: one hundred and eight hymns [Translated into English].– Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1981.– ISBN 0-140-44989-2 25. Библиография в приложении.

79. Oldenberg, Hermann. Die Hymnen des Rigveda / Herausgegeben von Hermann Oldenberg.– Band 1.– Metrische und textgeschichtliche Prolegoniena.– Berlin: Verlag von Wilhelm Hertz, 1888.– 545 p.

80. Oldenberg, Hermann. Vedic Hymns.– Part 2. Hymns to Agni (Mandalas I-V) / Translated by Hermann Oldenberg.– First published by the Oxford University Press, 1897. Reprinted.– Delhi; Varanasi, Patna: Motilal Banarsidass, 1964.– 500 p. (The Sacred Books of the East / Translated by Various Oriental Scholars and edited by F. Max Müller.– Volume 46).

81. Panikkar, Raimon. The Vedic experience, Mantramañjarī: an anthology of the Vedas for modern man and contemporary celebration.– Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, 2016.

82. Pappeso, Valentino. Inni del Rig-veda / prefazione, introduzione e note di Valentino Pappeso [extensive selection from Rigveda, Edition and translation into Italian by Valentino Pappeso].– [In 2 volumes].– Bologna: N. Zanichelli, [1929-31].

83. Paramasiva, T. Iyer. The Riks, or Primeval Gleams of Light and Life / T. Paramasiva Iyer.– Bangalore: Mysore Government Press, 1911.– 100 p. Шри Ауробиндо пишет в Тайне Веды: “М-р Т. Парамашива Айяр в ещё более смелом отходе попытался доказать, что вся Риг Веда является фигуральной репрезентацией геологических феноменов, принадлежащих новому рождению нашей планеты после её продолжительной ледовой смерти в тот же период земной эволюции. Трудно принять во всей их массе рассуждения и выводы м-ра Айяра, но он, по крайней мере, бросил новый свет на великие ведические мифы Ахи Вритры и высвобождения семи рек. Его интерпретация гораздо более последовательна и вероятна, чем текущая теория, которая не была подкреплена языком гимнов.”

84. Patel, Manilal. The ninth Maṇḍala of the Ṛgveda // Bhāratīya Vidyā, Bhāratīya Vidyā Bhavan, Bombay.– 1-2, May-Nov. 1940.

85. Patel, Manilal. Bhāradvāja’s Hymns to Agni // Bhāratīya Vidyā, Bhāratīya Vidyā Bhavan, Bombay.– 2-3, May-Nov. 1941.

86. Peterson, Peter. A Second selection of hymns from the Rgveda / Edited, with Sayana’s commentary and notes, by Peter Peterson, M.A. Professor of Sanskrit, Elphistone College, Bombay.– First edition.– Bombay: Government Central Book Depot, 1899.– 287 p.

87. Peterson, Peter. Hymns from the Rigveda / with Sayana’s commentary, notes, and a translation, by Peter Peterson, M.A. Professor of Sanskrit and Acting Principal, Elphistone College, Bombay.– Bombay: Government Central Book Depot, 1888.– 293 p. (Bombay Sanskrit Series, No XXXVI)

88. Prasad, Durga. The Vedas made easy, or a literal English translation of the four Vedas, the Gospels of India, with the Sanscrit text, explanatory notes and summary of each hymn.– In 9 parts.– Lahore: Virjanand Press, 1912-1920. Автор представляет Арья Самадж.

89. Raja, C. Kunhan. Asya vāmasya hymn: The Riddle of the Universe. Ṛgveda 1.164 / Sanskrit text with the Bhāṣyas of Sāyaṇa and ātmānanda and with English translation and notes by Dr. C. Kunhan Raja, professor of Sanskrit, Andhra University, Waltair.– Madras: Ganesh and Co., 1956.– 258 p.

90. Raja, C. Kunhan. Poet-Philosohers of the Ṛgveda, Vedic and pre-Vedic.– Madras: Ganesh and Co., 1963.– 330 p. Автор посвятил работу К.Ф. Гелднеру. Есть переводы отдельных сукт.

91. Regnaud, Paul. Le Rig-véda. Neuvième Mandala. Le culte védique du soma / Texte et traduction par Paul Regnaud, professeur a l’Univerité de Lyon.– Paris: J. Maisonneuve, Libraire-Éditeur, 1900.– 467 p. Перевод на французский 9-й мандалы.

92. Renou L. L’ambiguité du vocabulaire du Rgveda // Journal Asiatique. Avril-Juin 1939, pp. 161-235.

93. Ṛgveda-samhita: Sanskrit text, English translation, and notes according to the translation of H.H. Wilson and Bhashya of Sayanacarya / by Sayana; Ravi Prakash Arya; H. H. Wilson; Kanhaiyalala Joshi.– Delhi: Parimal Publications, 2001.– ISBN 81-7110-138-7 (Set of four volumes).

94. Röer, Hans Heinrich Eduard (1805-1866). The first two Lectures of the Sanhita of the Rig Veda, with the commentary of Madhavacharya, and an English translation of the text.– Calcutta, 1848.– 32 p. (Bibliotheca Indica. A Collection of Oriental Works published under the patronage of the Hon. Court of Directors of the East Indian Company, and the superintendence of the Asiatic Society of Bengal / Edited by Dr. E. Röer.– Vol 1. January). Автор – немецкий учёный. Работал библиотекарем Азиатского Общества в Бенгалии и редактором серии Bibliotheca Indica Общества, когда он начал публиковать и переводить на английский Ригведу с комментариями Саяны, которого он называет Madhavacharya. Проект был прерван, вероятно, из-за начавшейся публикации Макса Мюллера.

95. Rosen, Fridericus (1805-1837). Rigveda-Sanhita: Liber Primus, Sanskritè et Latinè / Edit Fridericus Rosen (1805-1837) [published posthumously]; The Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.– London: J.L. Cox and Sons, Lincoln’s-Inn Fields, 1838.– viii, 263 p., Adnotationes LXVIII p. Первый печатный перевод, на латинский; Сукты 1.1 – 1.121.

96. Sarasvati, Svami Satya Prakash; Vidyalankar, Satyakam. Ṛgveda-Saṃhitā: Translation into English.– In 12 volumes.– New Delhi: Veda Pratishthana, 1977–[1983 ?] Работа следует Даянанде.

97. Sarasvati, Svami Satya Prakash. The Holy Vedas: A Golden Treasury.– Delhi: Clarion Books, [БГ].– 537 p.

98. Sen, Umapada. The Rig Vedic Era.– 1st ed.– Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1974.– 218 p. Отдельные рик, часто цитируются переводы Гриффита, Людвига и др.

99. Sonde, Nāgeśa. Rig Veda: A study of the forty hymns.– First edition.– Mumbai: Nagesh D. Sonde, 2006.– 225 p.

100. Sri Aurobindo. Hymns to the Mystic Fire // CWSA.– Volume 16.– 2013.– 762 p.

101. Sri Aurobindo. The Secret of the Veda // CWSA.– Volume 15.– 1998.– 604 p.

102. Sri Aurobindo. Vedic and Philological Studies // CWSA.– Volume 14.– 2016.– 742 p.

103. Stevenson, John. [Trividya trigunatmika bhaga: The threefold science; sukta 1-35 of the first mandala of the Rigveda, with Sanskrit notes: Translation into English].– [Bombay], [Printed at the American mission Press], [1833].

104. Thieme, Paul. Rigveda : Gedichte aus dem Rig-Veda.– In German.– Stuttgart : Reclam, 1964.

105. Thomas, Edward J. Vedic hymns: Translation from the Rigveda with introduction and notes.– In English.– London : John Murray, 1923.– 128 p. (Thee Wisdom of the East Series. Vedic Hymns)

106. Tilak, Lokamanya Bâl Gangâdhar. The Arctic Home in the Vedas, Being Also a New Key to the Interpretation of Many Vedic Texts and Legends.– Poona: Messrs. Tilak Bros, Gaikwar Wada, 1903.– 457 p. Шри Ауробиндо пишет в Тайне Веды: “М-р Тилак в его “Arctic Home in the Vedas” принял основные выводы европейской науки, но свежим исследованием ведической Зари, образа ведических коров и астрономических данных в гимнах установил, по крайней мере с большой долей вероятности, что арийские расы спустились первоначально из арктических регионов в ледниковый период.”

107. Varenne, Jean. Le Véda.– In French.– Paris: Éditions Planète, 1967.

108. Velankar H. D. Family-Hymns in the Family-Maṇḍalas // Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 18Bombay.– 1942.

109. Velankar H. D. Hymns to Indra by the Atris // Journal of the University of Bombay, Bombay.– 8, Sept. 1939.

110. Velankar H. D. Hymns to Indra by the Bhāradvājas // Journal of the University of Bombay, Bombay.– 10-11, Sept. 1941-Sept. 1942.

111. Velankar H. D. Hymns to Indra by the Gṛtsamadas // Journal of the University of Bombay, Bombay.– 9, Sept. 1940.

112. Velankar H. D. Hymns to Indra by the Vāmadevas // Journal of the University of Bombay, Bombay.– 6, May 1938.

113. Velankar H. D. Hymns to Indra by the Vāsiṣṭhas // Journal of the University of Bombay, Bombay.– XIII (2), Sept. 1944.

114. Velankar H. D. Hymns to Indra by the Viśvāmitras // Journal of the University of Bombay, Bombay.– 3, May 1935.

115. Velankar H.D. Ṛgveda. Maṇḍala VII / Introduction, Devanagari Text, English Translation, Critical Notes, Select Glossary and three Indices by H.D. Velankar, Jr. Director, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay.– Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1963.– 412 p.

116. Wilson, Horace Hayman. Rig-Veda Sanhita: A collection of ancient Hindu Hymns / Translated from the original Sanskrit by H.H. Wilson, M.A., F.R.S.– In 6 volumes.– London, 1854–1888. Первый полный опубликованный перевод на английский. Автор – ректор Санскритского Колледжа в Калькутте, перевод близко придерживается Саяны.

117. Witzel, Michael; Goto, Toshifumi; Scarlata, Salvatore. Rig-Veda: das heilige Wissen: Dritter bis fünfter Liederkreis.– [In German].– [Frankfurt am Main] : Verlag der Weltreligionen, 2013.– ISBN 978-3-458-70001-2 / ISBN 978-3-458-70001-3

118. Елизаренкова Т. Я. Ригведа / Отв. ред. П.А. Гринцер.– [В 3х т.].– Изд. 2-е испр.– М.: Наука, 1999.– (Серия Литературные памятники / РАН). Автор отмечает, что переводить Риг Веду, опираясь на Саяну, невозможно. Перевод осуществлён с использованием работ К. Гелднера, Л. Рену, А. Людвига, Г. Олденберга, словарей Бётлинга, Г. Грассмана, М. Майрхофера.

119. Тилак, Бал Гангадхар (1856-1920). Арктическая родина в ведах / Б.Г. Тилак; [Пер. с англ. Н. Р. Гусевой].– М.: Гранд : Фаир-Пресс, 2002.– 525 с. : ил.; 21 см.– ISBN 5-8183-0263-6

VI. Short list of dictionaries and glossaries

120. Apte, Vaman Shivaram. The concise Sanskrit-English dictionary : containing an appendix on Sanskrit prosody and another on the names of noted mythological persons and a map of ancient India.– Delhi: Gian Pub. House, 1990.

121. Apte, Vaman Shivaram; Gode P. K.; Karve, Cintamana Ganesa. The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary : containing appendices on Sanskrit prosody, important literary and geographical names of ancient India.– Kyoto: Rinsen Book Co., 1978, 1957.

122. Apte, Vaman Shivaram. The student’s Sanskrit-English dictionary : containing appendices on Sanskrit prosody and important literary and geographical names in the ancient history of India.– Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2015, 1970.

123. Benfey, Theodor. A Sanskrit-English dictionary : with references to the best edition of Sanskrit author and etymologies and comparisons of cognate words chiefly in Greek, Latin, Gothic, and Anglo-Saxon.– New Delhi : Asian Educational Services, 1998.

124. Böhtlingk, Otto von. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung = Малый Петербургский словарь санскрита.– St.-Petersburg, 1879–1889.

125. Cappeller, Carl. A Sanskrit-English dictionary : based upon the St Petersburg lexicons.– Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2009.

126. Godbole, Nārāyan Bâlkṛṣṇa. Viçvanāth alias Bāpu Shastri Joshi: A Vaidika Koça, or Glossary of Vedic words by Bhāskararāya.– Bombay, Nirnaya-Sāgara Press, 1888.

127. Grassmann H. Wörterbuch zum Rig-Veda = Словарь к «Ригведе» Г. Грассмана.– Wiesbaden, 1955.

128. Jha N.; Jha, Birendra Kumar. Vedic glossary on Indus seals.– Varanasi: Ganga Kaveri Pub. House, 1996.

129. Kāvasjī Edaljī Kāngā. A complete dictionary of the Avesta language: in Guzerati and English; a comparison of Avesta words with those of Pahlavi, Sanskrit, Persian and Latin.– Bombay, Printed at the Education Society's Steam Press, 1900.

130. Keshavaram, Vyasa; Paranjpe A. S. Laghu-Nighanta : [glossary of Vedic terms explained by Yaska].– [In Sanskrit].– Poona : Samarth Bharat Press, 1962.

131. Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1854-1930). Sanskrit English dictionary.– New Delhi: Published by Ajay Mehra for Award Pub. House, 1979.

132. Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1854-1930); Keith, Arthur Berriedale (1879-1944). Vedic Index of Names and Subjects.– In 2 volumes.– London: John Murray [published for the Government of India], 1912.– Vol.1.– 544 p.; Vol. 2.– 592 p.

133. Mayrhofer M. Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen = Этимологический словарь М. Майрхофера: . A Concise Etymological Sanskrit Dictionary. [With equivalents in German and English.].– Heidelberg, 1956, 1978. Bd. I—IV.

134. Monier-Williams, Monier. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages / New edition, greatly enlarged and improved with the collaboration of prof. E. Leumann, prof. C. Cappeller and other scholars.– First edition, published by Oxford University Press.– [Reprinted at] Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1997.– 1333 p.– ISBN 81-208-0069-9 (Deluxe Ed.); ISBN 81-208-0069-6 (Ordinary Ed.)

135. Purani, Ambalal Balkrishna. Vedic glossary / compiled by A. B. Purani from works by Sri Aurobindo.– Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1962.– iii, 103, 426 p. 23 cm.

136. Ramajasana; Wilson H.H. A Sanskrit and English Dictionary, being an abridgement of Professor Wilson's Dictionary.– Benares [printed], London, 1870.

137. Roth, Rudolf von; Böhtlingk, Otto von. Briefe zum Petersburgen Woerterbuch 1852—1885 herausgegeben von Heidrun Brueckner und Gabriele Zeller bearbeitet von Agnes Stache–Weiske.– Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1853–1895.

138. Roth, Rudolf von; Böhtlingk, Otto von. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch herausgegeben von der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, bearbeitet von O. Böhtlingk und R. Roth.– In 7 vols., Saint Petersburg: Императорская Академия Наук, 1853–1875.

139. Sri Aurobindo Kapāli Sāstry Institute of Vedic Culture. Semantics of Rig Veda / Rangasami L. Kashyap; Ambalal Balkrishna Purani; Aurobindo Ghose.– Bangalore : Sri Aurobindo Kapāli Sāstry Institute of Vedic Culture, 2017. ©2006.

140. Tarkavachaspatl T. Vacaspatya, a comprehensive Sanskrit dictionary : An alphabetically arranged dictionary, with a grammatical introduction, copious citations from the grammarians, scholiasts, from the Veda [etc].– [in 22 parts].– Cale.

141. William M. Sanskrit English Dictionary.– Madras: Southern publ., 1987.

142. Кочергина В.А. Санскритско-русский словарь. Около 30000 слов / Под ред. В.И. Кальянова; Грамматический очерк санскрита, А.А. Зализняк.– М: Русский язык, 1987.– 943 с.


1 Perhaps also 11 vālakhilya suktas (77 riks from 80), included at printed texts of Samhita of śākala (8.49–8.59), were taken from āśvalāyana.


2 Texts were published at Die Apokryphen des Ṛgveda (Khilāni) / herausgegeben und bearbeitet von Dr. phil. J. Scheftelowitz.– Breslau: M. & H. Marcus, 1906.– XII, 191 p.– (Indische Forschungen; H. 1).


3 Sometimes at Padapatha anusvara was “decoded” by symbol of nasal (ङ ञ ण न म) according to following consonant.


4 A&R.– Volume 1, No 1 (1977, April), p. 31.


5 CWSA. Volume 15.– Pondicherry, 1998, p. 39.


6 SABCL, volume 27, p. 433.


7 CWSA. Volume 16.– Pondicherry, 2013, p. 22.


8 CWSA. Volume 15.– Pondicherry, 1998, p. 363-64.


9 Sri Aurobindo wrote: “a literal and external translation gives either a bizarre, unconnected sequence of sentences or a form of thought and speech strange and remote to the uninitiated intelligence.” (CWSA. Volume 15.– Pondicherry, 1998, p. 363.)


10 Even approximate time of Rigveda compillation is not known. There are many versions, theories and speculations on its age: from 3 to 9 thousand years ago.


in Russian