अथ सप्तदशोऽध्यायः (श्रद्धात्रयविभागयोगः)
atha saptadaśo'dhyāyaḥ (śraddhātrayavibhāgayogaḥ)
17. The Yoga of the Threefold Division of Faith
The translation of the Gita presented here was compiled mainly from Sri Aurobindo's Essays on the Gita. It first appeared in The Message of the Gita, edited by Anilbaran Roy, in 1938. Sri Aurobindo approved this book for publication; however, he made it clear in one of his letters that the translations in the Essays were "more explanatory than textually precise or cast in a literary style". Many of them are paraphrases rather than strict translations. Sri Aurobindo also wrote that he did not wish extracts from the Essays "to go out as my translation of the Gita". This should be borne in mind by the reader as he mattes use of this translation, which has been provided as a bridge between the Gita and Sri Aurobindo's Essays.
17.01 अर्जुन उवाच:
ये शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।
तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण सत्त्वमाहो रजस्तमः ॥
ye śāstravidhimutsṛjya yajante śraddhayānvitāḥ,
teṣāṃ niṣṭhā tu kā kṛṣṇa sattvamāho rajastamaḥ.
Arjuna said: When men sacrifice to God or the gods with faith, but abandon the rule of the Shastra. what is that concentrated will of devotion in them, nishtha, which gives them this faith and moves them to this kind of action. O Krishna? Is it sattwa, rajas or tamas?
त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा ।
सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां शृणु ॥
trividhā bhavati śraddhā dehināṃ sā svabhāvajā,
sāttvikī rājasī caiva tāmasī ceti tāṃ śṛṇu.
The Blessed Lord said: The faith in embodied beings is of a triple kind like all things in Nature and varies according to the dominating quality of their nature, sattwa. rajas or tamas. Hear thou of these.
17.03 सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत ।
श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः ॥
sattvānurūpā sarvasya śraddhā bhavati bhārata,
śraddhāmayo'yaṃ puruṣo yo yacchraddhaḥ sa eva saḥ.
The faith of each man takes the shape given to it by his stuff of being, O Bharata. This Purusha, this soul in man, is, as it were, made of shraddha, a faith, a will to be a belief in itself and existence, and whatever is that will, faith or constituting belief in him, he is that and that is he.
17.04 यजन्ते सात्त्विका देवान्यक्षरक्षांसि राजसाः ।
प्रेतान्भूतगणांश्चान्ये यजन्ते तामसा जनाः ॥
yajante sāttvikā devānyakṣarakṣāṃsi rājasāḥ,
pretānbhūtagaṇāṃścānye yajante tāmasā janāḥ.
Sattwic men offer sacrifice to the gods, the rajasic to the Yakshas (the keepers of wealth) and the Rakshasic forces, the others, the tamasic, offer their sacrifice to elemental powers and grosser spirits.
17.05 अशास्त्रविहितं घोरं तप्यन्ते ये तपो जनाः ।
दम्भाहंकारसंयुक्ताः कामरागबलान्विताः ॥
aśāstravihitaṃ ghoraṃ tapyante ye tapo janāḥ,
17.06 कर्षयन्तः शरीरस्थं भूतग्राममचेतसः ।
मां चैवान्तःशरीरस्थं तान्विद्ध्यासुरनिश्चयान् ॥
karṣayantaḥ śarīrasthaṃ bhūtagrāmamacetasaḥ,
māṃ caivāntaḥśarīrasthaṃ tānviddhyāsuraniścayān.
The men who perform violent austerities, contrary to the Shastra, with arrogance and egoism, impelled by the force of their desires and passions, men of unripe minds tormenting the aggregated elements forming the body and troubling Me also, seated in the body, know these to be Asuric in their resolves.
17.07 आहारस्त्वपि सर्वस्य त्रिविधो भवति प्रियः ।
यज्ञस्तपस्तथा दानं तेषां भेदमिमं शृणु ॥
āhārastvapi sarvasya trividho bhavati priyaḥ,
yajñastapastathā dānaṃ teṣāṃ bhedamimaṃ śṛṇu.
The food also which is dear to each is of triple character, as also sacrifice, askesis and giving. Hear thou the distinction of these.
17.08 आयुःसत्त्वबलारोग्यसुखप्रीतिविवर्धनाः ।
रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः ॥
rasyāḥ snigdhāḥ sthirā hṛdyā āhārāḥ sāttvikapriyāḥ.
The sattwic temperament in the mental and physical body turns naturally to the things that increase the life, increase the inner and outer strength, nourish at once the mental, vital and physical force and increase the pleasure and satisfaction and happy condition of mind and life and body, all that is succulent and soft and firm and satisfying.
17.09 कट्वम्ललवणात्युष्णतीक्ष्णरूक्षविदाहिनः ।
आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःखशोकामयप्रदाः ॥
āhārā rājasasyeṣṭā duḥkhaśokāmayapradāḥ.
The rajasic temperament prefers naturally food that is violently sour, pungent, hot, acrid, rough and strong and burning, the aliments that increase ill-health and the distempers of the mind and body.
17.10 यातयामं गतरसं पूति पर्युषितं च यत् ।
उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम् ॥
yātayāmaṃ gatarasaṃ pūti paryuṣitaṃ ca yat,
ucchiṣṭamapi cāmedhyaṃ bhojanaṃ tāmasapriyam.
The tamasic temperament takes a perverse pleasure in cold, impure, stale, rotten or tasteless food or even accepts like the animals the remnants half-eaten by others.
17.11 अफलाङ्क्षिभिर्यज्ञो विधिदृष्टो य इज्यते ।
यष्टव्यमेवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः ॥
aphalāňkṣibhiryaj˝o vidhidṛṣṭo ya ijyate,
yaṣṭavyameveti manaḥ samādhāya sa sāttvikaḥ.
The sacrifice which is offered by men without desire for the personal fruit, which is executed according to the right principle, and with a mind concentrated on the idea of the thing to be done as a sacrifice, that is sattwic.
17.12 अभिसंधाय तु फलं दम्भार्थमपि चैव यत् ।
इज्यते भरतश्रेष्ठ तं यज्ञं विद्धि राजसम् ॥
abhisaṃdhāya tu phalaṃ dambhārthamapi caiva yat,
ijyate bharataśreṣṭha taṃ yajñaṃ viddhi rājasam.
The sacrifice offered with a view to the personal fruit, and also for ostentation, O best of the Bharatas, know thou that to be of a rajasic nature.
17.13 विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम् ।
श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते ॥
śraddhāvirahitaṃ yajñaṃ tāmasaṃ paricakṣate.
The sacrifice not performed according to the right rule of the Shastra, without giving of food, without the mantra, without gifts, empty of faith, is said to be tamasic.
17.14 देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्जवम् ।
ब्रह्मचर्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते ॥
brahmacaryamahiṃsā ca śārīraṃ tapa ucyate.
Worship given to the godhead, to the twice-born, to the spiritual guide, to the wise, cleanness, candid dealing. sexual purity and avoidance of killing and injury to others. are called the askesis of the body.
17.15 अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितं च यत् ।
स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते ॥
anudvegakaraṃ vākyaṃ satyaṃ priyahitaṃ ca yat,
svādhyāyābhyasanaṃ caiva vāňmayaṃ tapa ucyate.
Speech causing no trouble to others, true, kind and beneficial, the study of Scripture, are called the askesis of speech.
17.16 मनः प्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रहः ।
भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत्तपो मानसमुच्यते ॥
manaḥ prasādaḥ saumyatvaṃ maunamātmavinigrahaḥ,
A clear and calm gladness of mind, gentleness, silence, self-control, the purifying of the whole temperament Ś this is called the askesis of the mind.
17.17 श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत्त्रिविधं नरैः ।
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते ॥
śraddhayā parayā taptaṃ tapastattrividhaṃ naraiḥ,
aphalākāňkṣibhiryuktaiḥ sāttvikaṃ paricakṣate.
This threefold askesis, done with a highest enlightened faith, with no desire for fruit, harmonised, is said to be sattwic.
17.18 सत्कारमानपूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत् ।
क्रियते तदिह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलमध्रुवम् ॥
satkāramānapūjārthaṃ tapo dambhena caiva yat,
kriyate tadiha proktaṃ rājasaṃ calamadhruvam.
The askesis which is undertaken to get honour and worship from men, for the sake of outward glory and greatness and for ostentation is said to be rajasic, unstable and fleeting.
17.19 मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पीडया क्रियते तपः ।
परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥
mūḍhagrāheṇātmano yatpīḍayā kriyate tapaḥ,
parasyotsādanārthaṃ vā tattāmasamudāhṛtam.
That askesis which is pursued under a clouded and deluded idea, performed with effort and suffering imposed on oneself or else with a concentration of the energy in a will to do hurt to others, that is said to be tamasic.
17.20 दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे ।
देशे काले च पात्रे च तद्दानं सात्त्विकं स्मृतम् ॥
dātavyamiti yaddānaṃ dīyate'nupakāriṇe,
deśe kāle ca pātre ca taddānaṃ sāttvikaṃ smṛtam.
The sattwic way of giving is to do it for the sake of the giving and the beneficence and to one who does no benefit in return; and it is to bestow in the right conditions of time and place and on the right recipient (who is worthy or to whom the gift can be really helpful).
17.21 यत्तु प्रत्त्युपकारार्थं फलमुद्दिश्य वा पुनः ।
दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद्दानं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥
yattu prattyupakārārthaṃ phalamuddiśya vā punaḥ,
dīyate ca parikliṣṭaṃ taddānaṃ rājasaṃ smṛtam.
The rajasic kind of giving is that which is done with unwillingness or violence to oneself or with a personal and egoistic object or in the hope of a return of some kind.
17.22 अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते ।
असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥
adeśakāle yaddānamapātrebhyaśca dīyate,
The tamasic gift is offered with no consideration of the right conditions of time, place and object; it is offered without regard for the feelings of the recipient and despised by him even in the acceptance.
17.23 ॐ तत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः ।
ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा ॥
oṃ tatsaditi nirdeśo brahmaṇastrividhaḥ smṛtaḥ,
brāhmaṇāstena vedāśca yajñāśca vihitāḥ purā.
The formula ОМ, Tat, Sat, is the triple definition of the Brahman, by whom the Brahmanas, the Vedas and sacrifices were created of old.
17.24 तस्मादोमित्युदाहृत्य यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः ।
प्रवर्तन्ते विधानोक्ताः सततं ब्रह्मवादिनाम् ॥
pravartante vidhānoktāḥ satataṃ brahmavādinām.
Therefore with the pronunciation of OM the acts of sacrifice, giving and askesis as laid down in the rules are always commenced by the blowers of the Brahman.
17.25 तदित्यनभिसंधाय फलं यज्ञतपःक्रियाः ।
दानक्रियाश्च विविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः ॥
tadityanabhisaṃdhāya phalaṃ yaj˝atapaḥkriyāḥ,
dānakriyāśca vividhāḥ kriyante mokṣakāňkṣibhiḥ.
With the pronunciation of Tat and without desire of fruit are performed the various acts of sacrifice, askesis and giving by the seekers of liberation.
17.26 सद्भावे साधुभावे च सदित्येतत्प्रयुज्यते ।
प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा सच्छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते ॥
sadbhāve sādhubhāve ca sadityetatprayujyate,
praśaste karmaṇi tathā sacchabdaḥ pārtha yujyate.
Sat means good and it means existence; likewise, O Partha, the word Sat is used in the sense of a good work (for all good works prepare the soul for the higher reality of our being).
17.27 यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सदिति चोच्यते ।
कर्म चैव तदर्थीयं सदित्येवाभिधीयते ॥
yaj˝e tapasi dāne ca sthitiḥ saditi cocyate,
karma caiva tadarthīyaṃ sadityevābhidhīyate.
All firm abiding in sacrifice, giving and askesis and all works done with that central view, as sacrifice, as giving, as askesis, are Sat (for they build the basis for the highest truth of our spirit).
17.28 अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत् ।
असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेप्य नो इह ॥
aśraddhayā hutaṃ dattaṃ tapastaptaṃ kṛtaṃ ca yat,
asadityucyate pārtha na ca tatprepya no iha.
Whatever is wrought without faith, oblation, giving, askesis or other work, Asat it is called, O Partha; it is nought, here or hereafter.
ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद् भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु
ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे
श्रद्धात्रयविभागयोगो नाम सप्तदशोऽध्यायः
oṃ tatsaditi śrīmad bhagavadgītāsūpaniṣatsu
brahmavidyāyāṃ yogaśāstre śrīkṛṣṇārjunasaṃvāde
śraddhātrayavibhāgayogo nāma saptadaśo'dhyāyaḥ